Ravi Chouhan


In the realm of Indian politics, the introduction of the Electoral Bonds Scheme has sparked a legal controversy that continues to captivate the nation. The scheme, introduced in 2018, was touted as a means to bring transparency to political funding. However, it has since faced criticism and legal challenges. This blog aims to unravel the complexities of the Electoral Bonds Scheme case, examining the key issues, legal arguments, and the implications it holds for the future of political finance in India.

Background of the Electoral Bonds Scheme:

The Electoral Bonds Scheme was introduced by the Government of India in 2018 with the aim of reforming political funding. The scheme allows individuals and corporate entities to purchase bonds from designated banks and donate them to political parties. The unique feature of these bonds is that they are anonymous, providing a layer of confidentiality to donors. Proponents argue that this encourages transparency in political funding by channeling contributions through formal banking channels.

Controversies and Criticisms:

The Electoral Bonds Scheme has faced intense criticism on several fronts. One of the primary concerns is the anonymity of donors. Critics argue that the lack of disclosure regarding the identity of donors undermines transparency, a key principle of democratic governance. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the potential for illicit funding, as the scheme allows for large, undisclosed donations.

Another point of contention is the alleged preferential treatment given to certain political parties. Opposition parties have accused the ruling government of having an undue advantage, claiming that the scheme disproportionately benefits the party in power.

Legal Challenges and Court Proceedings:

The Electoral Bonds Scheme faced legal challenges almost immediately after its introduction. Public interest litigations (PILs) were filed in the Supreme Court of India, challenging the constitutional validity of the scheme. The petitioners argued that the anonymity of donors and the lack of disclosure requirements infringe upon the democratic principles of transparency and accountability.

In April 2019, the Supreme Court passed an interim order allowing the continuation of the Electoral Bonds Scheme but directed political parties to submit details of donations received through bonds to the Election Commission of India (ECI).

The legal battle intensified in 2021 when the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), a non-governmental organization, approached the Supreme Court seeking a stay on the issuance of electoral bonds ahead of state assembly elections. The ADR contended that the scheme facilitates money laundering and has a detrimental impact on the integrity of the electoral process.

Implications for Democracy:

The outcome of the Electoral Bonds Scheme case holds significant implications for the democratic fabric of India. Advocates argue that the scheme is a step towards ensuring financial privacy for donors, which may encourage more individuals and entities to contribute to political causes without fear of reprisal. However, critics assert that the lack of transparency compromises the integrity of the political process and allows for potential misuse of funds.

The case also brings attention to the broader issue of political finance reform. It prompts a reevaluation of existing mechanisms and calls for a balance between protecting donor privacy and upholding the principles of transparency and accountability in political funding.


The Electoral Bonds Scheme case stands as a critical juncture in India’s electoral landscape. As the legal proceedings unfold, the nation awaits a decision that will shape the future of political financing. Whether the scheme will be upheld, modified, or struck down remains uncertain, but the case undeniably underscores the importance of navigating the delicate balance between financial privacy and the foundational principles of democratic governance.

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